Posted by: Google (Google) Fellow Wu Jun
• read the Tom Hanks film "Forrest Gump" readers may remember it a shot. From me holding a blessing they've been the last Apple logo printed on paper that I bought a fruit company's stock, some people say my generation who no longer need to worry about the money. It was the early nineties film, director pick in the Apple, because its stock did rise tenfold in the past few years.
A few years ago, my city of Cupertino in Silicon Valley (Cupertino) looking for an apartment, once went to a mixed office and apartment communities, there is full of a variety of colors, a bite of the apple logo. Today, there is the famous iPod and iPhone maker Apple Inc. has headquarters. Apple also is not boom time, want to just take off the office building leased to Google (Google). Fortunately, the deal is not negotiated, or, that piece of small communities is no place in any case two of the fastest growing companies today.
People born in the sixties and seventies, may be the world's first personal computers have the impression of Apple machines. The eighties and nineties who was born, may affect deeper cool iPod. Apple initially cheap low-end brand, now a high-end fashion brand, this seemingly contradictory aspects, by Apple founder Steve Jobs • combines well.
1. Legendary Kid
In Silicon Valley, may not have one Bishidifu • Jobs more legendary had. Jobs may be the only U.S. Academy of Engineering, the University did not read the book of the Academy for one year. • Although Bill Gates never graduated from college, after all, is eight children for two years upon the earth. Jobs read only half a year universities, but also listen for a while, and then completely left the school. He was elected Fellow of the reason is "to create and develop the personal computer industry" (For contributions to creation and development of the personal computer industry).
Jobs is a young, unwed mother in graduate school, because they can not read the same with children, she decided to Steve Jobs gave up for adoption. She was hoping to find others of a university education. First started, she got a lawyer and his wife, but that the couple wanted a girl. In this way, Jobs was sent home to his parents. However, Jobs's biological mother later found not only his mother never graduated from college, father had not graduated from high school, and she refused to sign the final adoption papers. Later, Jobs's parents promised that we will certainly send him to college, his mother also agreed.
Jobs graduated from high school has a tuition backward expensive private universities. His poor parents give everything for his savings to pay college tuition. Read half a year, Jobs on the one hand feel divorced from the other parents could not bear to spend my life savings, they dropped out of college. However, he did not leave the school, and begin dropping his interest in the future he is likely to be useful lessons. Jobs have no income, rub on the floor leaning against the students hostel block a place to sleep at the same time by picking up bottles, cans up money a little money. Every Sunday, to eat a charity dinner, he was ten kilometers to go to a church. At the time, Jobs only do they want to do. His calligraphy famous university, and he fell in love with calligraphy. At the time he did not know what the future use of calligraphy, but it turned out, Steve Jobs's artistic accomplishments all the products Apple makes very nice design. For example, the computer before the font is very monotonous, Jobs in the design of Apple's Macintosh computer, then suddenly thought of the beautiful calligraphy, as this PCs designed for a very nice interface and fonts.
In 1976, Steve Jobs 20 years old, and Stephen • Wozniak (Steve Wozniak) and Wayne (Wayne) three played in the garage run Apple developed the personal computer. Wayne was out, leaving only two Jobs and Wards. At that time a computer anywhere from tens of thousands of dollars, even if the price several times and can not drop people into the house. In each technological revolution, new technologies have to be better than the old order of magnitude improvement foothold. Jobs was aware of this, he must let the computer several times the price down, or even a hundred times before someone. In order to reduce costs, Apple-I in addition to a host with a keyboard than what peripherals are not. However, it can take home a television video port, and a cassette tape recorder interface then ensure that data and programs can exist on the tape in general. The TV and the recorder in the U.S. almost every household. In the same year, the two developed the world's first general-purpose personal computer Apple-I. People spend a few hundred dollars can buy. Ten years later, China's electronics industry over several units such as Tsinghua University, research, developed a learning machine known as China's Apple compatible computer, priced at only 400 yuan, at a time when a IBM PC to 20000 Renminbi, the Chinese learning machine less than two years on a million units sold, more than other computers sold in China over the same period combined. Unfortunately, in China the company is the company I work for, very not operating, the style is like a government agency rather than commercial companies, was never developed. Of course, this is a digression.
The first Macs actually do much of anything, only let the children learn computer programming and practice about playing simple little simple games such as the police catch the thief. Mac is also very convenient for the operation, ordinary people would not like to use it. Therefore, it is the symbolic significance is much greater than its actual meaning, that is, the computer can enter the home. Ago, DEC's president that the computer into the home is the most realistic scenario. Now, Jobs and his colleagues have done this. DEC for their arrogance and prejudice and paid the price. The emergence of personal computers, a strong impact on a DEC minicomputer market, in 1988, long-term loss of the DEC finally support it no longer be personal computer company Compaq (Compaq) acquisition. Jobs is very clear, like the early Apple machines such toys are not so long like consumers. In fact, when IBM introduced the PC can use a real, after about three-quarters of the rush out of the apple market. So, Jobs began working to develop a truly usable PC. In 1984, the second-generation Macintosh Macintosh (Macintosh) was born.
McIntosh is the world's first to buy, and has interactive graphical interface and use the mouse to the personal computer. The performance of its hardware is better than the same period in IBM PC machine, but it was the leading operating system operating systems DOS IBM-PC a whole generation. The latter is a command-line operating system, the user must remember all of the operating commands to a computer. Today, as we have been accustomed to use interactive graphical interface, Windows, if we return to the DOS, we will feel very awkward. Macintosh and IBM-PC then there is the difference between Windows and DOS so great. In addition to differences in the interface, the Macintosh operating system in memory management there DO S incomparable advantages, because the latter is always the actual available memory limited to 640K, while the former without any restrictions. McIntosh to come out and selling well, so whether technically or from a business perspective, is a great success.
On Macintosh, you must mention, first, its interactive graphical interface of the first window is from Xerox (Xerox) Palo Alto company (Palo Alto, Stanford University is located) and laboratory (Parc) have been developed of. Palo Alto Labs may be the world's most innovative and most also will not place inventions into products. It is another to change the world but not bring any benefit for the invention of Xerox is everyone today with Ethernet. Although the graphical interface used in Apple's operating system has made outstanding contributions, but because it is after all the first invented by Xerox, so Apple's lawsuit against Microsoft in later on and did not earn less. Second, Apple is going for a closed road, it does not allow other people make compatible, so pocketed PC market. If Apple opened up Macintosh hardware technology that allows other hardware vendors enter the market, we would not be possible to use the IBM PC series, but Apple's campaigns. However, because Apple could not compete with compatible hardware manufacturers, so it can only play like one with the operating system like Microsoft's software as the core role of the firm. Then, two series of personal computers the key to victory depends on Apple and Microsoft operating systems duel. Help the situation in the absence of compatible, Apple can not challenge Microsoft, although it tried hard, but eventually lost down.
1985 so far, Apple have been developing smoothly, with 4,000 employees, market capitalization as high as 20 billion. Jobs personally very well, both fame and fortune. But then, Jobs had met someone else life may not experience the two things - to be other people out of their own companies, then went to the gate of hell Zouliaoyizao. The Apple, also entered the long 15-year low.
In 1983, Jobs persuaded the president of PepsiCo Schooley (John Sculley) to Apple as CEO. Scully previously worked for ten years at Pepsi, and successfully promoting the Pepsi brand. Previously, people generally believe that Coca-Cola Coke tastes better than the others. Scully found that we have preconceptions, he used double-blind comparative evaluation - given a large number of testers Coke bottles were not labeled. The result that more people think Pepsi tastes better, Schooley win the market battle. Jobs asked him to open up the market for Apple, and Apple is responsible for daily work himself out of the first line focuses on Macintosh technology. If Scully is a co-ordinate the overall prime minister, Marshal Steve Jobs is a strategist.
Scully tried to make an apples to apples into the mainstream PC machine. In order to meet market needs, Schooley Apple come up with numerous types of models, while increasing the sales price, the profits to the development of Apple's new growth point-Newton PDA (Apple's Newton PDA), the first handheld machine. Jobs and Scully worked well the first year; the second year, will start falling out of phase. Jobs and Scully struggle lasted more than a year, the board finally stood Schooley's side. 1985, Schooley victory, while Steve Jobs was kicked out of his own founded Apple. That year, Steve Jobs just three years old. Average 30 years old entrepreneur also may not be able to create his own company, Steve Jobs this year his company has been fired. Jobs angrily, sold all his shares of Apple. At that time the workstation is on fire, Jobs created a company to do workstation NeXT, not very successful. NeXT workstation graphics features strong, so Jobs would like to develop animation. So he bought five million U.S. dollars with the movie "Star Wars" director Lucas founded a very successful animation studio, and it constitutes a re-do with graphics animation studio Pixar workstation company, which is today the world the best animation studio, Disney was later to 7.4 billion U.S. dollars of high-priced acquisitions, a lot of good animation is Pixar production. In fact, Jobs from Pixar earned more money than he earned more than from Apple.
Schooley Jobs in off after the PC to Macintosh technology trend down drifted forward in 2078. Scully is very clear to Apple's advanced technology, even if the do anything, you can earn money ten years. He has always been committed to developing new products, and strive for the company to find new growth point. But always to no avail. Later, Apple is not a big surprise, there are thousands of projects, large and small managers at all levels, in order to improve their status, around recruiting, a new project. These projects, 90% are useless. Facts have proved that all the projects last only Apple's new operating system is successful. Even the high hopes of the Newton PDA Scully did not form any climate. Apple's stock is rising nineties began, this is the movie Forrest Gump think Apple's stock holders do not need to worry about the reasons for the money. If the film shot a few years later, the director will have to find another stock to the Forrest Gump of the. Schooley in power in the latter part of Macintosh's market share has gradually been getting smaller and smaller Microsoft packed, while the stall talks about bigger shop, Apple is losing money, Scully had to step down. Scully is conceding the two successor. Microsoft has beaten Apple to be a mess, came close to being sold to IBM and Sun (Sun Microsystems), but who also frown upon the two companies in this market has been shrinking Apple PC manufacturers. If you sell into today, we have no iPod.
Nineties, Apple and Microsoft have not infringing on Apple's operating system, Windows concerned, fighting the lawsuit for several years. After Microsoft released Windows 3.1, IBM PC machines can also enjoy the graphical user interface, and Apple's market is rapidly shrinking. Apple sued Microsoft because Windows is actually a lot of creative copy of Apple's operating system. In court, Microsoft's Bill Gates pointed out that Apple's Windows-style graphical interface is also copied Xerox. Gates said, so how can you get broken window gain access to Xerox something, I can not come from the door where you take things? Finally, the court or to Windows and Apple operating systems although it looks like, but it is not a thing has been rejected Apple's demands. Silicon Valley companies when competition is not only in commercial pressing a Microsoft, even Microsoft can not win the lawsuit are, 10 years Silicon Valley has been dreaming of a company can compete and gain the upper hand in the company.
In 1998, the Apple board of directors had nowhere to turn them off 13 years ago, Jobs invited back in charge with Jobs as saying "there is a big hole under the boat." In the United States, the board off a founder of the situation, while not common, but still occurred. But that was then invited back in charge off the company founder, not only before heard of, the future is difficult again.
3. Greater achievements
Steve Jobs of Apple board of directors of the ability at first off the mark, they gave him a temporary CEO position. Jobs also do not care about this, he even promised to take only one dollar a year salary. After all, Apple is his own son, as long as he returned to Apple's hard to say anything else. Silicon Valley entrepreneurs and I talked a lot and found their own companies, even the smallest company, in sentiment on their own children as parents. Jobs after taking office, introduced a number of looks cool PC, then Mac has a lot more expensive than IBM compatibles, became a high-end products, many users are mainly engaged in the arts - they're like apples better than other PC graphics - and some hip students and professionals. Jobs himself more like a talented artist, not a serious engineer. Since Apple no longer possible in the field of alternative compatible PC and Microsoft's position, and he decided to high-end development, pay attention to performance, taste and fashion. Slowly, Apple's products have become fashionable things.
Jobs, good luck, a power network bubble to catch up, then what the company's results are up, Apple also followed up. Because Apple has positioned itself in a very narrow high-end market, they avoid and Microsoft, Dell and Hewlett-Packard. With Microsoft antitrust case was being getting whipped, but also attend to the little brother of the apple. Apple's Steve Jobs took over two years in the recovery well and the board are righting a year after Steve Jobs, he was appointed as the official CEO.
Did not last long, as the Internet bubble of the broken, Apple is now faced with the possibility of once again hindered. Of course, as long as it honestly stick to their own high-end market, with the economic recovery, Apple will get better on a high-end PC manufacturer. If only so, Apple does not merit our close-up of the capital; and so it is not Steve Jobs Steve Jobs has. Jobs Superman lies in his good at learning, and can be quasi-pulse of the times. After 10 years, Jobs has been honed in those years Maotouxiaohuo child has. He has recognized Apple's closed hardware and software, from a cost perspective, competition can not be compatible with Microsoft Canada, can not provide users with rich applications. Jobs has done two things, Apple Computer, he gradually adopted Intel's general-purpose processor, also used Free BSD for the new Apple operating system kernel. Relatively open system that allows all interested in open source community a large number of engineers to easily develop software for Apple. However, it is essential to find the PC other than Apple's growth point, in fact, he has accepted the view that year Schooley.
Schooley understand the importance of new growth points, but he did not find Apple served as CEO did not want to do it all done. Scully pursue the idea of a good personal assistant, but premature, because then both the mobile phone, telephone or the Internet are not developed, few people are willing to spend hundreds of dollars can not buy a network of high-level notebook. Therefore, the products in the market even if there is merely a very narrow market, such products can not set off a trend. Schooley's luck is not very good, because in his era in charge of Apple, mobile communications and the Internet has not developed previously, in addition to the development of computer created a trend, there is no trend. Although Apple could have become a leader in the field of computers, but it closed the practice, making it over the possibility of Microsoft's almost zero. Jobs was lucky, he again took over the apples, has entered into the Internet bubble era. Yahoo seems to represent a trend, many companies follow Yahoo, but the fact that they are faced with the Internet bubble and will therefore face a serious crisis. Jobs in the Internet bubble era, to a commanding height, the muddy water did not run to the Internet that, but that the network trend of following the true Sands.
The last century the last decade, the Internet and multimedia technology as the core of a technological revolution began. The Internet is a channel of information dissemination, multimedia technology provides the digital source of information. Original audio and video compact discs and DVD soon to be replaced, with the voice and image compression technologies, the digitalization of music and video is easy to spread on the Internet. To the late nineties, the Internet is full of a variety of pirated music and movies. Previously, music compact discs belonging to a monopoly of the lucrative industry, the industry, a friend told me a music CD on average about 10 U.S. dollars, and remove the version of the production costs of after-tax total of only ten cents to several cents depending on volume be. Do not have the money now online, music downloads soon a quarter of the total Internet traffic, the majority of Internet users have learned to listen once downloaded music, watch downloaded video. Meanwhile, the market there are some small music players, but do not be ideal. Although the record companies to help provide the collective Gao Ying pirated music of Napster, pirated music and video quickly disappeared from the Internet. However, users with a small player to listen to music and songs used to have cultivated.
Jobs saw the two most important facts first, although there have been many players, but do not do well, especially when the number of music more after the very difficult to find and manage. To know which song from the 1000 order to find their own want to hear it may take several minutes. In addition, it is necessary to buy scores of their previous songs on the CD player back to the more troublesome; Second, the majority of users are accustomed to wearing headphones listen to songs from the player and not carry a portable CD player and dozens of CDs. Therefore, it does not need to spend money and time to cultivate a market. Based on these two considerations, Jobs called the iPod decided to develop the music and video player.
Apple solves the above-mentioned two technical problems. They designed a player's hand circular motion planning to find means by which users can very quickly find yourself listening to the song. Also, they designed a software called iTune installed on your computer, you can automatically put the computer and the CD's songs reached the iPod. In addition, iPod's battery can play after a charge time of up to ten hours, a variety of players than ever are much longer. Meanwhile, the Apple iPod's design is very beautiful, so, from its launch in 2001 of a past love to hear the popular music of the young people like. Only one year, iPod sales will break through 100 million U.S. dollars. Then, after more than a year, iPod sales of close to 10 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for 15% of the company's turnover. Last year, iPod sales of nearly eight billion U.S. dollars, accounting for four percent of Apple revenue. Apple's stock from the lowest point of the beginning of 2003 has already gone up 20 times. Today, iPod has more than just a simple player, but a big industry. Different manufacturers, from the factory to the car speakers, all companies take the initiative for the iPod in the design and manufacture of various ancillary products, such as speakers, headphones, car audio, and even leather and so on. Would seem to have many software companies active in the development of Microsoft's operating system applications. Wonder Kid Jobs finally brilliant achievements.
From 2004 to 2006, Steve Jobs and Apple have experienced two major catastrophe, but they miraculously survive.
In 2004, the Jobs cancer, doctors estimated that he would survive up to 3-6 months. Doctors advised him to go back and everything was all good, in fact, to imply that he was "prepare to die." Doctors immediately provide the surgery, very fortunately, it is a rare incurable cancer. After surgery, he soon enough. This experience, so Steve Jobs have a real understanding of death. He believes that the evolution of life and death to promote change, not the old and new do not come. Now, new technology and new, in the near future, will gradually become the old, will be eliminated. Apple is not immersed in the iPod's success, stepped up new product development.
Apple is not very smooth this year, experienced a delay and options products storm.
Wall Street always expect revenues of listed companies continue to create miracles. In order to obtain further growth in the monopoly of the player market, Apple in 2003 began to seek higher profits in the music market share. At that time the world music market by five major record labels EMI (EMI), Universal (Universal), including subsidiary Polygram, Warner Brothers (Warner Brothers), Sony and BMG monopoly. Today, after the two have been merged. This is basically five different artists each contract, the sale of all of the music, together maintain a high profit market. Most of the audience may have a experience that everyone may like only a record of 12 songs but not all, but must buy a CD with the entire CD to buy. Apple recommends the development with the record company and it's paid download market, the album is split into one song after another song to sell, so the audience can just choose your favorite to download. The idea of course a good question is how record companies and Apple share, of course, everybody wants a little more. Steve Jobs is a very good negotiator, he has the strongest in the price Sony on the end, he and four other co-agreement, Sony had to give in, or else there will be isolated between the majority of iPod users outside . Since Apple's paid downloads, downloads than imagined growing slowly. Throughout 2006, Apple's performance in the stock market is bad, then, Apple has the option burst storm, more difficult. Media coverage on this crisis are many, roughly as follows:
U.S. high-tech companies want to know, to understand its stock option system. In traditional companies, an employee's income and benefits include cash bonuses and pension. General Staff does not own part of the company. Many high-tech companies, in order to benefit employees and the company's future tied together a number of stock options issued to employees (Stock Option). The so-called option is a certain time, such as ten years, according to a certain price, like the current market price to buy the stock right. Employees receive options, the company will have ownership of the responsibility. If the company's shares rose, then people can have stock options to buy shares over the past low prices, so-called exercise, then a high price to sell now, earn from the difference. Only when the company stock when the stock rising sense. Unfortunately, none of the company's stock up not only off, so options are sometimes meaningless. Some companies to make equity to become meaningful, in the middle of tricks, modify options granted time, with the lowest price the stock grant management and staff. Apple is in this case came a cropper. In 2006, the SEC began investigating the behavior of Apple. After a long investigation, the Commission acquired solid evidence that Apple has finally bowing out, and paid a fine. Finally, Apple CFO Anderson (Fred Anderson) this punishment.
View from the later developments, the financial officer who was dismissed feel offended, go to "The Wall Street Journal" to Idealists. Jobs single-handedly deal with the SFC's investigation, the primary development of new products. By the end of 2006, Apple introduced the Apple TV. Apple TV is not in any sense of the TV, but a regular that the size of the computer, the box can store thousands of hours of music or hundreds of hours of film. It is an Internet connection can download music and movies, the other end, and the home TV and audio connection, play the surround sound, high-definition audio and video. Do not like it about the same price and iPod chunks, it is likely to become the future of every family living room entertainment center. Many people think that, in the personal computer, home entertainment center will become a new industry. In fact, ten years ago, Bill Gates in his "future" in the predicted audio and video products will be digital, according to the special needs of the user to download and there is a server, the server can manage and control all the appliances. Gates is now quickly realized this dream, but it puts Apple's first to step forward. Now, there are three candidates in this area, Apple, Microsoft and Sony, the latter two by their respective consoles as home entertainment center. Apple's iPod has the largest user base, Microsoft has a strong technical reserves, Sony has a leading Blu-ray (Blu-Ray) DVD technology, who do not know the last laugh.
Apple's second new competitive products is listed on iPhone, just recently. I was privileged to witness and trial in the first time this revolutionary product. To be honest, this is the best phone I have seen. It is beyond an ordinary mobile phone plus iPod player, It also has a complete, networked computers and the main functions of general TV. Use it to check mail and surf the experience and the use of ordinary phone is different. As for the other cool features already have a lot of various news reports, I will not go into details. Although the price of 600 U.S. dollars it is a little high, but lower half of the eighteen months under the electrical law of the price, iPhone is likely to become the next popular phone, to become Apple's iPod after the new growth points, it will even impact the traditional The mobile phone industry.
If a little more about Apple's products a decade ago and now the product, we are easily found, Apple Zao longer a simple personal computer manufacturers, because of its large consumer electronics-like products, such as iPod, Apple TV And iPhone. Therefore, some experts believe that Apple is moving from computer companies, such as home appliances company over. However, these products are not the same as traditional appliances, everything is fresh impression, people read, the issue could not help feeling - that things can be so original play. Today, Apple has become a fashionable home appliance brand. If you ask what is innovation, which is innovation!
For three decades, Apple has experienced low back from the wave crest to the summit process. Its Rise and Fall of the rise and fall and its founder complete coincidence. From the Apple Macintosh was born to it developed, it can be considered the first period of development, the emergence of the Macintosh, make it ahead of Microsoft, which stood on the crest of the. The middle of the last two decades, Apple to the point where almost forgotten. Fortunately, it was like the soul of the artist in general innovation dead, and return it once again after the founder, are renewable and sublimation. Jobs sent to young people, a few words, always eager, knowing too much (Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish), willing to share it with the dwellers.
Next Chapter: The computer industry ecosystem
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