CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) is the Capability Maturity Model Integration

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What is CMMI
CMMI is the latest version of the CMM model. Early CMMI (CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD) 1.02 version is used in the software industry, project management, SEI began in some countries and regions to promote and trial. With the application of the promotion and development of the model itself, be interpreted as a widely used model of comprehensive.

Since 1994, SEI CMM software has been officially released, have they developed a systems engineering, software procurement, human resources management and integrated product and process development of multiple capability maturity model. Although these models have been in many organizations, a good application, but some large software enterprises, May will arise as Tongshi using a variety of models to improve their situation in various Guocheng capacity. Then they will find some problems, mainly problems reflected in:

1, can not focus on process improvement of their different capacities to achieve greater results;

2, to some duplication of training, assessment and improvement activities, thus increasing the number of cost;

Three, encounter a number of different models of the same thing quite different, or activities inconsistent, even contradictory.

So, I hope the demand for integration of different models produced CMM. In 1997, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) developed the FAA-iCMMSM (Federal Aviation Administration's Integrated CMM), the model incorporates applied system engineering SE-CMM, software for the SA-CMM and SW-Software All three models of CMM principles, concepts and practices. The model is considered the first integrated model.

CMMI and CMM biggest difference is: CMMISM-SE/SW/IPPD/SS 1.1 version has four integrated components, namely: systems engineering (SE) and Software Engineering (SW) is the basic subjects, some organizations can also be used for integrated product and process development (IPPD) content, if related to the outsourcing supplier management can be the appropriate application of SS (Supplier Sourcing) part.

CMMI has two representations, one is all very familiar, and the same software CMM-stage performance, and the other is the method of continuous performance. The performance difference between these two methods are:-stage performance approach is still in the CMMI process area into a number of 5 maturity levels of organizations to help implement CMMI recommendations to achieve a relatively easy process improvement path. The method of continuous performance through the course of the CMMI in the region is divided into four categories: process management, project management, engineering and support. For each category in the process of the region, is further divided into basic and advanced. Thus, in accordance with the implementation of CMMI continuous representation, when an organization or other project management can be certain that practice had to be the best, while other areas can be completely without regard to the process.

The key elements of each CMMI process

CMMI has been since his debut, its goals had not changed, the first is the quality, the second is the timetable, the third is to use the lowest cost. However, special emphasis is, CMMI is not a traditional, limited to software development life cycle, it should be applied to a wider area - the life cycle engineering design. The establishment of TSP, but also to support the CMMI for such a system. So what exactly is CMMI? It is not a process, not tell you how to do one thing. If you summed up what is CMMI, it is all a key element of the process, which in many areas of an integrated point. It is such a basic structure, can be used to measure the effectiveness and practicality you; to identify some of the opportunities that continue to improve opportunities, including business goals, strategy in reducing the risks of the project.

The organizational structure of CMMI CMMI organizational structure established under the leadership of the general at the highest EPG (Engineering Process Group, engineering process group), QA (Quality Assurance, Quality Assurance Group), EG (Engineering Group, Engineering Group), the three groups form is like legislation, supervision and enforcement of checks and balances system, reflecting the Western rule of law. EPG from SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group, the software engineering process group), this is the organization dedicated to promote CMM's functional units, along with the development of CMM to CMMI, the content is more extensive, EPG function is to organize the process improvement.

CMMI CMM origin as people studying on other disciplines combine the characteristics of this system, launched its own CMM model. For example, human resources Capability Maturity Model, Systems Engineering Capability Maturity Model, etc.:

(1) SW-CMM (Software CMM) Software CMM

(2) SE-CMM (System Engineering CMM) systems engineering CMM

(3) SA-CMM (Software Acquisition CMM) CMM software acquisition

(4) IPT-CMM (Integrated Product Team CMM) CMM Integrated Product Groups

(5) P-CMM (People CMM) Capability Maturity Model for Human Resources

In order to distinguish, at home and abroad a lot of information to CMM called SW-CMM. In accordance with the original plan SEI, CMM improved version 2.0 should be completed in November 1997, and then have to practice to obtain feedback from version 2.0, after completion in 1999, associate CMM2.0 version. However, the U.S. Department of Defense's Office for SEI delayed CMM2.0 version, but must first complete a more urgent project CMMI.

CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) is the Capability Maturity Model Integration, which is an idea the U.S. Department of Defense, and they want to now all will be developed in the various Capability Maturity Model, integrated into a framework. This framework has two functions, first, the software procurement methodologies; second, to establish a integrated product and process development from the point of view, including the principles of a sound system development process improvement. From a software standpoint, CMMI is a revised version of SW-CMM. It integrated the SW-CMM 2.0 version C and the SPA in the draft of a more rational, more scientific and more careful advantages. SEI in his CMMI-SE/SW 1.0 version was announced about two years to complete the transition from CMM to CMMI.

CMMI project is more industry and government provides an integrated product set, its main purpose is to eliminate inconsistencies between the different models and duplication, reduce the cost of model-based improvement. CMMI will be more systematic and coherent framework to guide the organization to improve the software process, improve product and service development, acquisition and maintenance capabilities.

The significance of the implementation of CMMI, many people believe that the implementation of CMMI is about the Project to the world, you can receive orders in the West. In fact, this is the significance of China's enterprises to implement a small part of the CMMI. More important is, CMMI implementation can improve the management of Chinese enterprises. Reduce the project cost. Facts show that investment in technology enterprises will CMMI great rewards. According to SEI statistics, the CMMI for software projects of investment, the return rate of between 5:1 to 8:1. So, why do so many companies have to implement CMMI project management techniques.

In recent years, many software companies have to implement CMMI management model, this reflects China's enterprises in the sense of crisis after entering WTO, and with the world's urgent desire. It reflects the Chinese software enterprises to improve management methods for their efforts. CMMI in the end, but can we do? In fact this problem on different people have different answers. Procurement department staff, the mastery of the technology can be the destination inspection CMMI project personnel or the company's implementation capacity, to ensure smooth procurement of project completion. For project managers, master CMMI technology can improve their management capabilities, enabling the project high-quality, low cost, completed by deadline. The bosses on it, CMMI can also introduce scientific management ideas to improve the overall business management.

In the United States, many enterprises through the CMMI assessment, on the one hand to meet the contractor defense engineering projects or some big business demands, on the other hand also to improve the company's own management ability. The U.S. government projects, most have required the contractor to have a certain CMMI level as the qualification to bid. More and more large companies began to demand their engineering contractor has a certain CMMI level. High-level enterprises in a bid to win the project has some advantages. Therefore, if there is no assessment of CMMI level, the business will lose a lot of opportunities.

Two implementation methods CMMI CMMI implementation of two different methods, different implementation methods, the level that different content. CMMI implementation method of a continuous, mainly a measure of ability of an enterprise project. Companies can choose to accept the assessment of projects to assess the assessment. Selection of projects for the enterprises themselves, by their assessment of the likelihood of a bit larger. However, it reflects the content is relatively narrower. It merely said that enterprises in the project or similar project implementation capacity to achieve a certain level. An alternative method for the implementation stage. It is primarily a measure of the maturity of an enterprise, that enterprise in the implementation of the project's overall strength. Enterprises carrying out the assessment must be selected by the assessor to any project within the enterprise, and even any part of any project. Generally speaking, a periodic assessment of enterprises are to be three, the majority of projects within the enterprise to achieve three-level, small projects can be in the secondary, but not to have one. Phased implementation of the method difficult to be larger.

Although, CMMI presentation in different ways, but its substance is the same. The same way two different formulation. Enterprises in the preparation of the assessment work is also fully prepared to do the same. The work on the business management help is the same. Therefore, no matter what companies need to do the assessment, business benefits obtained should be little difference. Continuous assessment of the specific need to do, or do periodic assessment will depend on business-level assessment of the specific requirements of the certificate.

CMMI can help us do
In recent years, many software companies have to implement CMMI management, many companies such as: Neusoft, Top, Huawei and other companies passed the three or four assessments. This reflects the Chinese enterprises in the sense of crisis after entering WTO, and with the world's urgent desire. It reflects the Chinese software enterprises to improve management methods for their efforts. CMMI in the end, but can we do? In fact this problem on different people have different answers. Procurement department staff, the mastery of the technology can be the destination inspection CMMI project personnel or the company's implementation capacity, to ensure smooth procurement of project completion. For project managers, master CMMI technology can improve their project management capabilities, enabling the project high-quality, low cost, completed by deadline. The bosses on it, CMMI technology can not only enhance the management level, but also the introduction of scientific management ideas to improve the overall business management.

In the U.S., many companies on the one hand through the CMMI assessment of national defense projects to meet the contract or some engineering requirements of large enterprises, on the other hand also to enhance their own management capacity. The U.S. government projects, most required the contractor has a certain CMMI level as the qualification to bid. More and more large companies began to demand their engineering contractors industry has a certain CMMI level. High-level enterprises in a bid to win the project has some advantages. Therefore, if there is no assessment of CMMI level, the business will lose a lot of opportunities. On the other hand, enterprises CMMI assessment is to improve enterprise management level, reducing the project cost. CMMI technology enterprise in the implementation of investment will be rewarded. According to SEI statistics, the CMMI for software projects of investment, the return rate of between 5:1 to 8:1. So, why do so many companies have to implement CMMI project management techniques.

CMMI basic statements of foreign companies if a claim to three by the CMMI assessment, lay people will feel bad, because 3 is higher than two. Who knows what will have to ask through the three? Because, CMMI, there are two different way of expression, different way of expression, the level that different content. A presentation CMMI continuous representation, the main measure of ability of an enterprise project. Companies can choose to accept the assessment of projects to assess the assessment. Selection of projects for the enterprises themselves, by their assessment of the likelihood of a bit larger. However, it reflects the content is relatively narrower. It merely said that enterprises in the project or similar project implementation capacity to achieve a certain level. An alternative formulation for the stage. It is primarily a measure of the maturity of an enterprise, that is, enterprises in the project's overall strength. Enterprises carrying out the assessment must be selected by the assessor to any project within the enterprise, and even any part of any project. Generally speaking, a periodic assessment of enterprises are to be three, the majority of projects within the enterprise to achieve three-level, small projects can be in the secondary, but not to have one. Stage expressed difficulty is bigger.

Although, CMMI presentation in different ways, but its substance is the same. The same way two different expressions. Enterprises in the preparation of the assessment work is also fully prepared to do the same. The work on the business management help is the same. So what can companies do the assessment, business benefits obtained should be little difference. Continuous assessment of the specific need to do, or do periodic assessment of the risk assessment of business is to look at the specific requirements of the certificate.

A CMMI level five steps: CMMI level, complete the level. Upon completion of class, the business objectives of the project and the need to do to clear the project's objectives are achieved. However, due to the completion of the task with a great chance, companies can not guarantee the implementation of similar projects at the time still be able to complete the task. Enterprises in the level of project implementation staff is very dependent.

Step 2: CMMI two management level. Grade level in the management of the enterprise in the implementation of the project able to follow the established plans and processes, resources and preparation, powers and responsibilities to the people, on the implementation of projects related to personnel have appropriate training, monitoring and control of the whole process has, and with higher units of the project and process review. Enterprises in the secondary level, the project reflects a series of management procedures. This series of management measures exclude the companies to complete the task level, the randomness, to ensure the business will be successful implementation of all projects.

Step 3: CMMI 3, the definition of class. In the definition of level two, companies can not only implementation of the project Youyizhengtao management practices, and protect the project Wan Cheng; Er Ju, enterprises can According to the their own particularities and its own the standard Liu Cheng, Jiang set of management systems and processes Yu Yi Zhi Duhua Thus, companies not only to students in similar projects to the successful implementation of projects in different classes as can be successfully implemented. Scientific management as a cultural enterprise, business organization wealth.

Step 4: CMMI 4, quantitative management level. Grade level in quantitative management, enterprise project management not only developed a system, but also the management of digital technology. On the management process to achieve quantitative and Digital. Through quantitative techniques to achieve process stability, achieve the precision of management, reducing project implementation fluctuations in quality.

Step 5: CMMI 5, optimization level. Grade level in optimizing the enterprise project management to achieve the highest level. Enterprise not only by means of information and digital means to achieve the project's management, but also make full use of information on enterprises in the course of project implementation may be defective be prevented. Take the initiative to improve processes, use of new technology, process optimization.

From the above we can see the five steps, each step is a step above the cornerstone of the first order. To the top level you must first set foot on the lower floor level. When companies in the implementation of CMMI, way to step by step. Generally speaking, we should start with two to start. Management efforts. CMMI for the eventual realization of the fifth grade.

Easy to implement CMMI committed eight errors [1]
Since the CMMI was introduced after the country, more and more enterprises to implement the CMMI. But the really good corporate earnings are rare. Asia Vision Technology summarized the cases of dozens of CMMI was found after the implementation of the CMMI process easily committed eight errors. If companies can effectively avoid these errors had on the smooth implementation of the CMMI, and achieved good results.

1, corporate executives ignore is the most important point. CMMI implementation of the company's senior leadership is not enough attention, did not provide adequate resources and supervision involved is not enough, it will directly affect the implementation of the results. Without the support of the enterprise level, system of promotion is very difficult, so the need to fully understand the implementation of the CMMI level on the importance of corporate long-term development.

2, officials lack the quality of key personnel such as EPG implementation of process improvement team leader, CM and PPQA personnel management experience and technical strength, and not enough to assume its responsibilities, not enough software engineering background, nor in the organization's ability to obtain sufficient enough authority may lead to project personnel do not understand does not support process improvements, Qi Jie Guo will be a direct result of the implementation of project failure, Huozhe in Pinggu O'clock Baoloutaiduo problems, and to determining the Yingxiangzhengge assessment work. Must select those with experience, ability and prestige of the staff involved in the implementation process to give full play to their business in a positive influence.

3, rely on consultants to document EPG members of the over-reliance on consultants to provide a reference document, on the CMMI's model learning enough, did not spend the time structural The necessary enterprise's own procedure file, making the process of documents can not Henhao to adapt to business reality. EPG must improve the value of participating in the implementation of CMMI awareness training EPG's job skills. Can only really understand the model were based on the actual cut can not mechanically CMMI standard provisions or other business processes.

4, there is no gradual process improvement is not to reinvent the wheel, but rather on the basis of the enterprise had found insufficient, step by step. Employees to learn new knowledge, a new system of business will take time, Destructive Enthusiasm is unrealistic. Process improvement is not just to obtain a certificate, enterprises should develop long-term process improvement plan, step by step, constantly improve their own R & D system.

5, staff resistance to the implementation of CMMI purpose of staff did not agree with the new processes used to implement the original development of different developers in conflict, that the new process documents and templates added no practical effect. Training must be strengthened, so that employees understand the benefits of CMMI can bring; the same time rational and effective process design documents and templates, to reduce the work formalism of no use; to establish incentive mechanisms to improve the process, so that employees willing to participate in process improvement.

6, CMMI implementation of the change in plans due to market pressure and the pressure of project delivery, CMMI implementation plan does not guarantee, work was delayed or reduced. Business leaders and all stakeholders must be fully aware of this risk, through the CMMI project management, rational plan, distribution and use of resources. Select Consulting mature companies, advance arrangements and planning resources.

7, there is no regular reporting mechanism for process improvement within the organization is not established if the process of regular reporting mechanisms to improve, focus process improvement, process implementation and performance of the situation, then the first can not meet the requirements of the model itself, but also to the management of personnel caused by neglect, thus indifferent to the phenomenon of organizational process improvement.

8, the use of tools depends hand, some companies do, in the process and templates are not familiar with the situation, leading to much additional workload. Some companies are also widely used tool, but use to do before the team was not given adequate training, leading to the end of the project, and project team to amend or make up for the project is still not properly use the tool because the problems or difficulties arise.

CMMi implementation process [2]
Stage 1: CMMI project will start

Clear business objectives Enterprises CMMI, CMMI project to establish communication mechanism.

Stage 2: CMMI based process improvement training and group (EPG) established

To explain the basic concept of CMMI to guide enterprises to establish a core process improvement group.

Stage 3: Diagnosis

R & D process to fully understand the current situation, identify the existing business process and enterprise software at this stage should be to achieve the CMMI maturity level of the gap between the diagnostic report submitted to carry out process improvement planning.

Stage 4: the process of training and documentation for the definition domain

Combined with the current situation of business process training for CMMI process areas, with examples, case studies, etc., to master the process of business document definition EPG technique, combined with the actual situation of enterprises targeted definition of organization development process and to identify the process outputs (eg, : Demand Report)

Stage 5: Project Pilot

Select items on behalf of the company's core business or a typical pilot project, pilot projects to improve the process through documents, so as to promote enterprise-wide process of laying a foundation document.

Stage 6: Organization to promote

And implementation of an all round into CMMI.

Stage 7: Pre-assessment

Verify the results of the Organization to promote and identify the remaining deficiencies and to develop further business improvement programs, prepared so that enterprises can better formal SCAMPI assessment.

Stage 8: SCAMPI formal assessment

By the SEI authorized lead appraiser, director, using SCAMPI (Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement) assessment methods, the ability of enterprises to conduct a formal assessment of maturity, issue a certificate issued by SEI Web site to the global corporate information.
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